A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa <p>A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture is an OPEN ACCESS Journal. You can read, download and print full text of articles. The journal is also published with ISSN number (ISSN 2564-7474).<br /><br />A|Z is a refereed journal and is published as three issues in a year in English. A|Z is open to the articles and book reviews about design, planning, research, education, technology, history and art.</p> en-US az@itu.edu.tr (ITU-A|Z Editorial Office) az@itu.edu.tr (A|Z Editorial Office) Tue, 01 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Editorial https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/346 <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> Aliye Ahu AKGÜN Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/346 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Reanalyzing the features of the traditional Turkish houses in view of the Covid-19 https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/347 The convenience of the spatial usages of the current urban houses is questioned during the COVID-19 (SARS Cov-2) pandemic conditions and especially lockdowns. In this paper, the characteristics of the traditional Turkish house will be reconsidered in the light of the behaviors and needs that arise during the pandemic. In this context, both physical space conditions and cultural habits will be mentioned. Primarily, it is aimed to focus on concepts such as working from home (home-office), feeling of spatial confinement, isolation, longing for nature, introverted lifestyle, stockpiling, providing hygiene and distance socialization. Spatial richness, divisions, sections, extensions, open and semi-open spaces in the Turkish house, as well as the strong relationship with nature will be explained in the focus of the solutions they offer to the current needs. They are supported with authentic examples from both rural and urban areas. Considering that the epidemics and pandemics generally cause changes in architecture, the features of systems that have been used for years that can adapt to new needs have been reintroduced. Thus, a contribution to the architectural discussions on the post pandemic housing is expected within the outcomes of this work. S. Feyza YAGCI ERGUN, Aysegul NEBIOGLU Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/347 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Turkey’s modern housing heritage: Apartment buildings and interiors in İzmir, Karşıyaka (1965-1980) https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/348 Housing architecture clearly reveals lifestyle, social/cultural/political/economic changes, and architectural approaches. The changing needs of society, negligible conservation awareness, and interventions in housing units due to urban renewal policies negatively affect historical continuity and permanence. It is therefore important for conducting multi-layered studies on the analysis and documentation of housing architecture and interiors, which are representative of the period. The aim of this paper is interpreting modern architecture through housing heritage and analysing the architectural features, residential life proposals, and modernist design approaches of selected interior spaces. In this context, Karşıyaka, İzmir, which has a qualified housing stock on the subject and is in danger of losing its current housing stock in a rapid transformation, has been determined as a case area. Within the scope of this paper, the modernist architectural features, and interior practices of four apartment buildings built between 1965-1980 in Donanmacı District have been revealed. The selected time range was identified to include periods that are important for Turkey’s housing architecture - the periods of rapid development and modernization. The method includes literature review, sample identification, photography shooting, archive scanning, transferring data to digital media, and data analysis. The analysis which contains the facades and common areas of the apartments and plan schemes, and interior features of the flats has enabled the interpretation of design culture and the revival of apartment buildings as modern housing heritage values. Written and visual documentation of the apartments and interiors made the effects of the modernization process more visible and permanent. Gülnur BALLİCE, Gizem GÜLER NAKIP, Eda PAYKOÇ ÖZÇELİK, İrem Deniz AKÇAM Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/348 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Analysis of the architectural forms of the colonial period, in the regional group of Saoura, in Bechar (Algeria) https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/349 The regional set “Saoura”, immanent to the Algerian Sahara, is characterized by the dune aspect, with here and there a sporadic plant formation adapted to the harsh climate. Despite the constraints, human settlements have been established, the oasis of Bechar can be used as an example thereof. Like its peers, the oasis of Bechar reflects an ingenious architecture that accommodates the social and climatic context inherent in this regional set. Indeed, “the ksar” (Habitat), this genius of the place, responded to the socio-cultural needs as for the requirements imposed by their unforgiving context. This presentation lasted for a long time until the colonial order completely changed the logic of spatial production. Henceforth, new emblems referring to the French jurisdiction were integrated into the composition. Relatively, in a short period of time, the old city underwent series of changes from which the modern city gradually emerged. Today, this heterogeneous expression has been the subject of many criticisms of stylistic wandering in relation to the context. This article focuses on the analysis of architectural forms during the colonial period between 1900 and 1940 (considered as a transitional phase between traditional architecture and post-independence architecture), in the Saoura region, precisely in Bechar and Kenadsa. For this purpose, we will use a morphological approach inspired by the work of C. Norbert Schulz, who revealed an architecture called “neo-Moorish” or “Arabism”. This research allows us to lay the groundwork for the debate on the current architectural production in the city of Bechar. Djamila YOUH, Messaoud AICHE, Ratiba Wided BIARA Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/349 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The housing mobility, preferences and satisfaction of low-income renters in Kampung Cikini, Jakarta https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/350 This study aims to understand the reasons for housing mobility, preferences, satisfaction and the pivotal determinants for the housing choices of renters in slum settlements. The lack of affordable housing brings rental housing in slum settlements as the second dominant type of homeownership in Jakarta, despite its poor physical condition. This study is located in Kampung Cikini, a high- density Kampung settlement in the municipality with significant decreasing population growth. It employs a case study research method. The renters in Kampung settlement must not be stereotyped as low-income who fail to obtain homeownership, as some of them are homeowners who rent for several reasons. The reasons for housing mobility are determined by their life-course event, while selecting the location and quality of rental rooms designated to increase the savings/remittance by compromising physical and psychological comfort. This study demonstrates that housing satisfaction is achieved by changing the idealised to realistic housing preferences by selecting the prioritised and compromised cultural norms. Joko ADIANTO, Rossa Turpuk GABE, Bimo HERNOWO Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/350 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Residential subdivisions, what potential for quality production?: Case of the city of Bechar, Algeria https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/351 Having experienced in the past a fatal housing crisis, likewise any developing country with a rapidly growing population. The demands for building land in Algeria coupled with residential subdivisions have, therefore, known a real success. In Bechar (city of the south of Algeria), the increased production of the residential subdivisions (since the eighties) has not often given the expected results. Instead, we are witnessing poor quality, and often an unfinished production. For the most part, subdivisions are displayed in all their baseness, defying the rules of art and town planning. Whereas, the subdivision is not only an inert urban form conceived in the form of plot division, rather, it is a mean of urban development that must meet the quality requirements of the living environment.While the successive production of residential subdivisions today gives a depreciated image, reflecting an uncompleted construction site, this article aims to shed light on this phenomenon and seeks avenues capable of improving the quality of life in these living spaces. Nassira MESSAFRI, Ratiba Wided BIARA, Abdallah FARHI Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/351 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Using geographic information systems to study the impact of the built environment on social inclusion of people with physical disabilities: The case of Amman https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/352 This research explores the relationship between the built environment and social inclusion of adults with physical disabilities in the city of Amman, the capital of Jordan, using GIS (Geographic Information Systems). GIS is overlapped with the survey data to identify the built environment predictors (independent variables) and social inclusion indicators (dependent variables). The study hypothesized that the income level has a significant impact on all indicators of social inclusion. Multivariate Logistic Regression analysis is used to measure the influence of the built environment predictors including income level, residential density, land use mix, and variety of destinations on the three indicators of social inclusion: physical independence, occupation, and communal and social activities. The results of the study indicate that living conditions in neighborhoods with higher economic status, more land use mix, and more destinations are positively associated with social inclusion; while the high-compacted residential density has a negative impact on social inclusion. The results also indicate that there are other significant factors that negatively affect social inclusion such as attitudinal, physical, and transportation barriers. The findings of this research can be used as a basic material in the development of disability policies to improve social services and provide an entire social inclusion for people with physical disabilities. Nadeen ABDELDAYEM, Raed AL TAL, Anne GHARAIBEH Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/352 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Outdoor heals: An example of a healing garden in a rehabilitation centre https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/353 Healing gardens are thematic areas where users spend quality time, supporting recovery, making them feel better than they are. Many health care providers have gardens on the outside. However, these gardens are inadequately equipped and have unsuitable designs. It is irresponsive to the requests and needs of users, from plant selection to structural solutions and equipment used. It should be known that the space organization of healing gardens should be designed with the special needs of individuals with different obstacles prioritized. In this study, the outdoor space of a rehabilitation center is designed as a garden of improvement for the physical and mental health and comfort of individuals. In line with the on-site observations (feasibility studies, drone shootings, potentials of the field) and the needs of the users (students, student relatives, staff), a concept diagram for this area was developed with the opinions of the expert psychologists working in the rehabilitation center and the recommendations for each place were visualized with illustrations. Module designs included in illustrations can be applied to all kinds of healing gardens. Şehriban ERASLAN, Ayşegül AYAZ Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/353 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Musicians’ impressions of low frequency sound field in small music rooms https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/354 A recently implemented standard BSI EN ISO 23591:2021 constitutes a basis to specify acoustic quality criteria for music rehearsal rooms and spaces which also includes an indication of the room resonances in such rooms. This paper aims to contribute towards the clarification of the effect of resonances on a musicians’ perception and the perceptual differences related to instrument sound power level. To analyze the low frequency environment and related distortions, 2 selected rooms were measured and simulated by the wave-based simulation method for modal analysis, and then 24 musicians were interviewed with a performance-based questionnaire. In order to investigate the resonance perception, the musicians’ data was gathered through face-to-face interviews analyzed by quantitative analysis. In both rooms, the overall impression is highly correlated with reverberance and loudness. However, when resonances are audible, the perceived reverberance and loudness are altered by the resonances and clarity becomes prominent. For the detection and evaluation of resonances, The Quality-Factor and Modal Decay Time threshold values are applicable; however, the threshold values may be higher for rehearsal conditions than listening conditions. Dilara KELLE, Sevtap YILMAZ DEMİRKALE Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/354 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 The chronotopological emergence from the spatial narrative to performance https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/355 The discipline of architecture often benefited from literary narratives while developing new designing and representation methods. The richness of the descriptions in literary narratives triggers the different strata of our perception and may enrich our space production strategies. In line with this opinion, Umberto Eco’s novel The Name of the Rose was examined architecturally and the transition process from literary narrative to spatial narrative was investigated in the present study. The concepts representation, narrative, sign, time, and space constitute the conceptual framework of the research.The aim is to examine the relationship dynamics behind the signs regarding time-space based on Bakhtin’s concept of chronotope, to enrich the parameters used in the design environment, and to develop a more responsive possibility of architecture.The Name of the Rose was chosen due to the historical references it comprises,the abundance of its potentials in the fields of intertextuality and semiotics, and the fact that the literary text was also adapted to a motion picture.A new architectural design strategy was developed by bringing out the relationship between the chronotope layers being the signs of time-space phenomena. In conclusion, it was understood that the literary narrative does not only include descriptions regarding space but also knowledge regarding time and the knowledge of fictional text was evolved into a new method of production by the transformation of this knowledge into parameter used in spatial design.The study aimed to transform the textual performance of the novel “The Name of the Rose” into a spatial performance. Zeynep ÖZTÜRK, Levent ARIDAĞ Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/355 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 An investigation of architectural design process in physical medium and VR https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/356 Virtual Reality (VR) is a powerful medium to design and experience architecture which researchers and practitioners are currently exploring with increasing interest. This paper investigates the impact of the use of VR in architectural design. We developed an interactive VR design tool by using the Unreal Engine 4 game engine, Dreamscape Bricks VR, in which the participants can design and build architectural models using virtual LEGO pieces via direct manipulation. We conducted design experiments comparing the physical medium and VR design processes with 14 subjects, including architects, graduate, and undergraduate design students. Each participant was asked to design a shelter and a pavilion, one with physical LEGO bricks (in situ) and another in Dreamscape Bricks VR (in virtuo). The design processes in both the physical medium and VR were analyzed by video recording of participants with retrospective think-aloud reporting and a post-experiment survey. The Function-Behavior-Structure (FBS) framework was used to analyze the participants’ cognitive design process, while the Embody- Experience-Manipulate (EEM) framework was developed and used to analyze the recorded design activities. The results showed similarly rich cognitive design processes in both media. Embodying and experiencing activities were significantly higher in VR. The analysis results and participant comments indicated that the ability to change the user scale in VR provides novel opportunities for the design process that are not available in the physical medium. This study offers insight into the impact of using VR in architectural design processes and the potential and limitations of VR design tools. Oğuz Orkun DOMA, Sinan Mert ŞENER Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/356 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Using overlapping fields in design-build assignments to retrieve the architectonic situation in architecture schools https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/357 Architects are seeking to bridge the design-construction divide. This approach, which seeks to retrieve the situation in which there is no distinction between design and construction, attempts to address an integrated educational pedagogy by linking origins and providing opportunities and challenges for undertaking thought-practice tasks. To accomplish this integration, the article investigates the usage of an overlapping field with architecture in design-build projects. Architecture and intertwining have a same background. This action research analyzes the experience of exploiting their overlap in designing and building a light awning at Yazd University in Iran’s architecture school. The methodology includes analyzing the lived experience of freshmen (N = 24) through pictures, memoranda, and observations and comparing it to secondary feedback from alumni (N = 24) obtained via questionnaire. As found, analogy-based journeys to the intersections provide architectural decision-making situations like material selection, structural pattern recognition, manufacturing concepts, and a holistic viewpoint for component arrangement. Similarity exists when two fields have at least one function, behavior, or structure in common. In this study, structure serves as a strong junction at the form and concept level. This approach guides the experience of the aimed situation, named “architectonic situation,” which is context-sensitive and attempts to provide a comprehensive image to introductory studios. This reality-based approach includes three parts: students, an assignment subject, and a field that overlaps with architecture. It could be recommended to schools that seek to connect with their cultural roots as part of their mission. Hossein Pour Mehdi Ghayem MAGHAMI, Azadeh Khaki GHASR Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/357 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Determination of architectural construction technologies - detail design interaction with the expert opinion method in the context of 3D printing technologies https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/358 As construction technologies are taken into consideration in design processes, one of the factors determining the direction of the development of construction technologies is the actions within the detail design process. This mutual effect emerges as an architectural design-construction interaction. This study aimed at finding an answer to the question: “In the near future, when the newly developed 3D printing technology is used in a widespread manner as architectural construction technology, what effect will it have on the detail design process for architectural construction?”. For this purpose, the “Delphi-Expert opinion method”, which is a forecast method, was used in this study. With this method, questions were posed to selected academicians and architects, as experts who had different levels of experience, ranging from 2 to 50 years, in detail design, about the research question. As a remarkable result of using the Delphi method, regarding the use of 3D printing technology, they stated that joints and additional elements will almost disappear and the details will be “simplified” when compared to today. Finally, the results obtained using the Delphi method were applied to the details of the intersection area following the “research through design” and “prototyping” methods. With this study, the future use of 3D printing technology as a building technology was examined through the construction-design interaction and the possible effective development aspects of this technology were foreseen by experts. The applicability of the study results was demonstrated by transforming these predictions into new design sub-processes and applying them to a sample. Sühan ARTUĞ, M. Cem ALTUN Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/358 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Modeling a rheological cement mixture suitable for 3D printing technology with Fuzzy Logic https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/359 The material preferred in additive manufacturing technology 3D printing, which has advanced in current years and has been utilized in the construction sector, is a cement-based mixture. Considering the experimental studies for this mixture, which does not have a definite formulation, the success of the resulting products shows the rheological properties that enable the material to be built. Data on the constructability of the material can be obtained by defining the volume ratios of the resulting samples with the Fuzzy Logic method. For the constructability of the material, a Mamdani type fuzzy model was created and the “CENTROID center of gravity” method was stipulated as the clarification method. While the component material ratios of the cementitious mixture create the fuzzy inputs of the system, static and dynamic yield stresses are reached as fuzzy output values. 15 rules obtained from experimental studies that enable the system to work were defined and then the operation of the method was tested. In this study, it is aimed to develop a decision mechanism for intermediate values that are not encountered in the experimental results by blurring the mixture models supported with definite findings. Merve KÜÇÜK, Ferhat PAKDAMAR, Cahide AYDIN İPEKÇİ Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/359 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 Bridging the GAP between product and user: Design of product-by-structures and design for prosumption https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/360 The relationship between people and the objects is the determinant factor of the relationship between life and human experience. Human-object relationship since the last couple centuries has been organized predominantly under the influence of modern foundations such as production-consumption dichotomy or instrumental understanding of technology. Rational capitalist strategies, which became the economic standard in the same period, has ruptured this relationship in order to satisfy speed, efficiency and profit ambitions of capitalist companies by conspicuous consumption of mass produced products. In this relationship, the product is reduced to a mere consumption object, the human being to a mere consumer and they are put apart. Such separation of human and object is, in the context of this study, conceptualized as GAP. Aim of the present study is to reveal ways of bridging this GAP by proposing conceptual models as alternatives for fixed models of industrial design activity, i.e. finished product and user. Research data were obtained based on extensive literature reviews in the fields of design, engineering, arts, humanities and philosophy and applied design studio projects. In this paper, the conceptualization of the research background is presented through theoretical discussions. The research findings contribute directly and inclusively to the fields of design research, practice and education as the proposed model in the context of this research may provide more sustainable, indigenous and developable paths for design activity. Enver TATLISU, Gülname TURAN Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/360 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300 An interdisciplinary urban furniture design model https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/361 Urban furniture is a multifaceted object shaped by several factors such as user needs, social structure, urban pattern, geographical characteristics, economy, technology, and material. As an interface connecting user to the city, urban furniture contributes to the construction of an urban identity, have placemaking power and support public activities. Although the urban furniture is subject to design in different disciplines, multidisciplinary studies to urban furniture design are very limited and the definition and range of urban furniture is not clear. Buildings such as kiosks are evaluated as urban furniture by decision makers such as municipalities who mostly expect design alternatives without defining clear design expectations or evaluation criteria. This research proposes a multidisciplinary model to urban furniture design as an analytical design method. The proposed model has three stages before furniture design: “defining and evaluating design criteria”, “Classification of urban furniture based on the criteria scores” and “Creating urban furniture design matrix combining criteria evaluation, furniture clusters, local characteristics, and summarize design concept, keywords, form and material characteristics for furniture design”. Based on this model, a design matrix for Ordu city is prepared and one of urban furniture design example is presented here. 10 main and 84 sub-criteria graded based on 30 furniture types via interdisciplinary workshop with 16 professional participants. This research reveals that differences in the urban furniture design approaches and evaluation criteria of different disciplines exist. The proposed model integrates multi-disciplinary approach, local characteristics, furniture clusters which is a new classification based on criteria scores. H. Serdar KAYA, Meltem ERDEM KAYA, Elif SERDAR YAKUT, Mine ÇİÇEK, Ezgi GÜLER TOZLUOĞLU Copyright (c) 2022 ITU Press https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/361 Sun, 06 Nov 2022 00:00:00 +0300