A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa <p>A|Z ITU Journal of the Faculty of Architecture is an OPEN ACCESS Journal. You can read, download and print full text of articles. The journal is also published with Print ISSN (2564-7474) and Online ISSN (2564-7571).<br /><br />A|Z is a refereed journal and is published as three issues in a year in English. A|Z is open to the articles and book reviews about design, planning, research, education, technology, history and art.</p> en-US az@itu.edu.tr (ITU-A|Z Editorial Office) az@itu.edu.tr (A|Z Editorial Office) Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 OJS http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 Space forged through the narratives of (collective) memory: The built environment https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/946 Aliye Ahu Gülümser Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/946 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 From Istanbul to Detroit: International networks of Islamic art in the early 20th century https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/690 <p>While past decades have seen the rise of historiographical studies on Islamic art exploring collections, exhibitions and influential figures, the international nature of the formative years of the discipline, especially that of networks of people, is an aspect that needs further investigation. This article explores the beginnings of Islamic art in the United States by taking a well-known figure in Turkey at its center. Mehmet Aga-Oglu, curator of Islamic art at the Evkaf Museum, migrated from Istanbul to Detroit in 1929 to create a collection of Islamic art for one of the oldest museums in the country, Detroit Institute of Arts (DIA). A group of international scholars facilitated this transition in their common goal to transform the United States into a leader in the academic studies of Islamic art history. By taking this little studied case, this article explores the key role this network of scholars played in establishing a new academic discipline in North America, which resulted in a little-known connection between Turkey and the United States as well as a keen interest in Turkish art and collections in Turkey in furthering the scholarship of Islamic art produced in the first half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century. To this end, this article outlines the beginnings and state of the field in 20<sup>th</sup> century; explores DIA’s search for a curator and Aga-Oglu’s appointment through the efforts of Bernard Berenson, Rudolf Meyer Riefstahl and Wilhelm R. Valentiner to highlight their unrecognized contributions; and Aga-Oglu’s curatorial work at DIA from 1929 to 1933. </p> Zeynep Simavi, V. Gül Cephanecigil Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/690 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Dispute risk management in the procurement systems used in high-rise building projects https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/721 <p>Dispute risk is inherent in high-rise building projects because of project complexity and uniqueness. The type of dispute risk management required depends on the procurement method used. No previous study has focused on any specific type of project, such as high-rise building projects, although a need exists to manage dispute risks in procurement systems used in high-rise building projects. Thus, this study aimed to explore the systematic dispute risk management in traditional method with measure and pay (M&amp;P), traditional method with lump sum (LS), and design and build (D&amp;B) with LS procurement systems used in high-rise building projects. Delphi technique comprising three rounds of a questionnaire survey was used to collect the empirical data. By analysing the collected data, dispute risk factors were identified; the severity of the risk factors was assessed; the identified risk factors were allocated among the client, consultant, and contractor; and the appropriate risk response strategies were identified in respect of the procurement systems. ‘Lack of skilled labour’ and ‘inability to complete work on time’ were the two most significant risk factors of all three procurement systems. In risk allocation, the risk should be allocated to the party that can best tolerate and manage the risk. Risk response strategies were found to be common in all three procurement systems. Dispute risks can be avoided at the commencement of the project itself by accommodating standard conditions of the contract together with an appropriate (this can be innovative) procurement system.</p> Asha Dulanjalie Palihakkara, B.A.K.S. Perera, A. L. Samarakkody, D.M.C.K. Dissanayake, M. R. M. F. Ariyachandra Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/721 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Relationship between corporate social responsibility reporting and employee’s environmental sustainability perception: The mediation role of mindfulness https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/344 <p>The trend of publishing reports about corporate social responsibility (CSR) and sustainability activities has become a phenomenon that is getting more popular in the construction sector. The aim of this study is to discover the perception of employees; who are the ones that experience these applications from the first hand in a company. A pilot survey has been prepared and conducted to construction sector professionals. Factor analysis has been applied by SmartPLS 3.0 software and after the elimination of key indicators. To define “Individual mindfulness” mediation effect has investigated between “Environmental sustainability” and “Environmental CSR” by using PROCESS macro on SPSS. The results indicated that individual mindfulness level has a positive effect on the relationship between environmental sustainability (ES) and environmental CSR. However, other values like; experience, age, etc., have been found irrelevant to this relationship. Therefore, to explain more about control variables; correlation tests have been executed.</p> Gizem Şimşir, F. Heyecan Giritli Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/344 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Analysis of behavioural processes in cultural centres through concepts of configuration and time: A three building comparison in Istanbul https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/390 <p>Cultural centres have changed throughout history in terms of their configuration and usage. Changing design approaches, socio-cultural patterns, technical improvements, and user demands have also changed the usage, content, and function added resulting in changing the spatial configuration and architectural program. In Istanbul, some cultural centres still have some hard-programmed characteristics or strict rules in terms of architectural programming relating to the defined functions in everyday life and social interactions. Other cultural centres maintain flexibility in their architectural program to include various social activities. This study aims to syntactically demonstrate how the social interaction spaces of cultural centres tended to change from the period of 1938 to 2005 by the correlation between syntactic values of configuration and the frequencies of usage. As a result, it can be seen that the spatial configurations have determinants on spatial behaviour. In one centre that is examined, circulation space is more integrated and connective. Therefore, it is used as a social interaction area that supports random encounters. Hence, weak programming rarely has coherence between usage frequency and syntactical values. On the contrary, in the other centres that are examined, the users strictly follow the rules of spatial configurations. Strong programming also has more significant correlations between syntactic values and usage frequency. The crucial role of spatial morphology and user behaviour are highlighted to support social interaction in strong-weak<strong> </strong>programming. How the architectural program in cultural centres tends to change is argued.</p> Çiğdem Bayram, Alper Ünlü Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/390 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Evaluation of the effects of Covid-19 lockdowns and strict restrictions on İstanbul's air quality https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/739 <p>The Covid-19 pandemic, which started in Wuhan, China, led to several strict restrictions and lockdowns in Turkey, like many other countries. Although lockdowns have had a socially and economically negative impact, they have affected the air quality in a positive way. The aim of this study is to examine the spatial impact of lockdowns on air quality in İstanbul and to determine the correlation of polluting indicators. In line with the determined purpose, PM10, SO2, NO2, CO and NOx parameters were spatialized with ordinary kriging method in 5 different time intervals and the relativity levels between meteorology, transportation and particles that cause pollution were examined with the Pearson correlation method. As a result, lockdowns caused an increase on CO and SO2 by up to 28%, while other particles decreased by 2% to 23%. Compared to 2019, a decrease of up to 60% in all particles except CO and SO2 has shown that lockdowns have a positive effect on air quality. It was observed that the pollution, which was concentrated in urban areas before the pandemic, spread to rural areas with the precautions taken. Temperature, number of vehicles and traffic index were found to play an important role in the emission of particles, while wind speed and direction played an important role in the displacement of pollution. It has been observed that finding a positive correlation between pollutants and the factors that trigger pollution has rapidly changed the ecosystem of the city along with the policies affecting air quality.</p> Şüheda Köse Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/739 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Accessibility in intensive care units: A qualitative study on exploring architects’ perspective. https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/389 <p><span style="font-weight: 400;">This study addresses healthcare designers’ perspectives concerning the architectural features within the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) environments that can impact visual and physical access to patients. In line with patient-centered approaches, providing accessible environments in ICUs is becoming increasingly critical for healthcare providers. The existing literature suggests various architectural features to influence levels of access to patients. How architects prioritize these features and translate them into the configuration of ICU environments has not been explored extensively. </span><span style="font-weight: 400;">A series of semi-structured interviews were conducted to understand the perspectives of healthcare architects in the context of Turkey. The interviews were conducted with twelve participants with recent experiences in ICU design. The research followed a thematic analysis to link the qualitative data with the participants’ drawings that emerged during interviews.</span><span style="font-weight: 400;"> Five essential themes emerged, including: “Unit Model,” “Unit Layout,” “Unit Size,” Bed Position,” and “Transparent Material.” The participants implied configurational models, including “open ward” and “single-patient room,” to facilitate high levels of accessibility. Beyond the key decisions concerning layouts, the participants also emphasized the strategic use of transparent materials, which was considered critical in establishing visual access within units. The findings suggest that healthcare architects mostly favor open wards as a suitable model to provide high levels of physical access by decreasing nurses’ walking distances during shifts and visual accessibility by enhancing nurses’ capacity to supervise the patients within ICU environments. The findings can advance our understanding of how the issue of access is formulated and implemented in ICU settings. </span></p> Negar Sioofy Khoojine, Altuğ Kasalı, Mualla Erkılıç-Bayar Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/389 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 An assessment of population decisions on territorial plans in Türkiye https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/733 <p>Accurate determination of the future population of a settlement to be planned is important for optimal use of public resources, and land as a scarce resource. In this paper, the calculations for population projections, which are among the main determinants of spatial plan decisions, were questioned through the Territorial Plans. The population decisions of a total of 62 provinces were examined over twenty 1/100,000-scale Territorial Plans approved by the Ministry of Environment, Urbanization and Climate Change, together with their research reports. The basis for this consisted of: (1) population projections and forecasts, (2) average annual population growth rate calculations, and (3) population sizes. Results have shown that the extrapolation techniques used were applied incorrectly, and the population forecasts on which the plans are based were made independent of the projection calculations. In the examinations conducted over the average annual population growth rates, it was observed that the plans for each province were assigned extremely high populations without taking their current trends into account. For the 33 provinces where a comparison can be made with the projections of TURKSTAT (Turkish Statistical Institute) for the year 2025, it is found that among all the provinces only one could achieve the forecast results. Findings indicate that the following adjustments are needed: (1) more advanced population projection techniques, including demographic data, should support the extrapolation techniques, (2) the territorial plans should be revised, and (3) decisions on plans should be based on appropriate techniques and realistic population forecasts.</p> Gökhan Hüseyin Erkan, Ersin Türk, Aygün Erdoğan Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/733 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Dynamics in post-pandemic architecture: Integrative literature review in response to post-pandemic built environment https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/699 <p>"Dynamics in post-pandemic architecture" refers to dynamics in architecture as implication of disease spread in a building for averting a future pandemic. The highly contagious and rapid spread of COVID-19 has caused changes in the architecture and way of life. The built environment needs proper strategies to act as a facilitator for averting the spread of disease in the future. The implications of disease spread and strategies for dynamics in post-pandemic architecture will be reviewed and discussed in this study. Integrative literature review used in this article is a systematic method to define previous research, relate concepts and relevant studies by reanalyses the data for future research. The first step is systematically clear selection; the second step is coding; the third step is synthesis. The integrative review considered 102 papers (of which 40 were reviewed). It was discovered that there were no articles that incorporated previous study findings comprehensively. Six strategies for future dynamics in architecture post-pandemic are revealed: control of architectural density, control of peripheries and spread, control of interaction, control of mobility, control of access, and new protocols and standards for spatial. Each strategy demonstrated the interaction between dynamics in post-pandemic architecture and security-pandemic variables in built environment. The findings: identification of the dynamics in architecture post-pandemic strategies that affect the built environment in preventing disease spread in the future. This will support future research in defining appropriate future research designs and understanding the need for holistic analysis of the integrated effects of diverse dynamics in post-pandemic architecture.</p> Sherly de Yong, Murni Rachmawati, Ima Defiana Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/699 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Tracing an ancient monument within a multi-layered historical - urban context: the octagonal structure in Pergamon/Bergama https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/774 <p>A large part of Bergama has been inscribed as a World Heritage Site due to to its rich history that transformed the city into a ‘multi-layered cultural landscape’. As these cultural and urban layers often overlap, the remains of older layers are hidden beneath the younger ones. This paper examines this phenomenon by focusing on the octagonal structure. In the last decade, scattered remains of ancient walls and enclosed spaces have been discovered, incorporated into the houses in the former neighbourhood of Greeks and Armenians. The long-lost monument, the octagonal structure, is situated at the southern skirt of the fortified city hill of Pergamon, facing towards the Kaikos (Bakırçay) plain. As the (Hellenistic) Attalid kingdom’s capital city, the city hill of Pergamon once incorporated not only the palaces of the royal family but also a great variety of monuments. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the rediscovery of the octagonal structure by giving references from its research history, describing current access routes to the structure, and interpreting the concept of ‘multi-layered city’ based on its state of preservation. The study of a monument which is buried under private properties is highlighted as another challenge, not only in terms of potential accessibility issues but also in terms of conditions affecting observation and documentation. The octagonal structure at Pergamon is presented here as a case study to emphasise the potential of discoveries in multi-layered cities.</p> Seçil Tezer Altay Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/774 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A preliminary list of lean and sustainability based supplier selection criteria in the construction industry https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/748 <p>Construction companies’ supply chains, their efficiency and effectiveness, and leanness and sustainability performance can influence competitiveness, cost and time effectiveness and sustainability performance of the construction companies. This paper aims to provide a preliminary list of lean and sustainability based supplier selection criteria to be considered in the supplier selection phase to support establishment of lean and sustainable construction supply chain. With this aim, following the literature review covering 16 standards, indices and certificates, the Delphi Method and Best-Worst Method (BWM) were applied. The literature review revealed 649 criteria which have been refined to eliminate the overlapped criteria. In total 222 criteria were remained and grouped under 4 main categories. Based on these 4 main categories of criteria, four main groups of four round Delphi Surveys were performed. Delphi survey outputs provided input to the BWM to further assess and organize the criteria for supplier selection. In BWM, all main groups’ optimal weights and their related criteria optimal and global weights were calculated. The identified criteria list can be considered as an input to the decision-making about supplier selection so that lean and sustainable construction supply chain establishment can be supported. This research is expected to be useful for construction industry professionals and academics in the relevant field.</p> Gamze Tatlici Kupeli, Begum Sertyesilisik Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/748 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 Residential mobility of suburban households under the unforeseen impacts of large-scale projects in Istanbul https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/373 <p>The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of residential mobility in the event of unforeseen effects of new developments referring to household vulnerability. Each household has experienced mobility according to its own assessment of housing and residential environment. Generally speaking, this sort of mobility is the result of a mismatch between a household's current residence and their expected living environment. Fluctuations in land value changes and neighbourhood rezoning among many consequences of new residential developments lead to forced mobility in the neighbourhood. Göktürk, one of the most important peripheral residential districts in Istanbul's northern outskirts, is surrounded by ongoing developments as well as the presence of informal settlements with expanding gated communities. Therefore, in this study, the socio-demographic characteristics of households, as well as their housing status and environment, are applied to determine the probability of household vulnerability. This study is based on primary data, which was collected directly from a designed survey of 210 households in this neighborhood. Furthermore, Binary Logit Regression is used to identify the vulnerability of households exposed to forced mobility. According to the findings of the defined models, the location, households' dimensions, middle and low income groups, and insurance ration are significant predictor variables in residential mobility. Another finding of this study is that the probability of vulnerability is assigned to each household in the event of unforeseen effects of large-scale projects. This study contributes to addressing the issue of prospective mobility of households in a peripheral district of Istanbul Metropolitan City by taking into account the probability of their vulnerability.</p> Somaiyeh Nasrollahzadeh, Turgay Kerem Koramaz Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/373 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 The daily mobility of residents and retailers during the pandemic in a pedestrianising Paris https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/381 <p>This study examines pedestrianisation in the context of the dilemma between urban transport planning and everyday urban mobility in Paris. The literature on pedestrianisation warns of the potential for uneven development and gentrification effects of pedestrianisation policies. This study is based on an online survey of Île-de-France residents (119 in total) and a corresponding survey of shopkeepers in three local shopping districts in Paris (121 in total) from February to June 2021. Additional follow-up informal interviews with English-speaking shopkeepers (about 8 out of the total of 121) about mobility and pedestrianisation practices in Paris helped to provide more in-depth insights. The results showed that Parisian residents and shopkeepers continued to be mobile in the city, using different modes of transport, even under pandemic conditions. In addition, Parisian shopping streets performed well in terms of business continuity. However, some shopkeepers opposed the city’s pedestrianisation policy for mobility, economic, and political reasons. In order to alleviate these problems, which could exacerbate urban inequalities, this paper suggests that local perspectives on the use of urban space and pedestrianisation should be taken into account in order to achieve more equitable forms of urban mobility in the crisis-ridden cities of the contemporary world.</p> Meric Kirmizi Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/381 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 84 years in urban memory: The relationship of Izmir Atatürk High School-Kültürpark https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/365 <p>The 1922 Great Izmir Fire points to an important historical rupture in urban memory of Izmir by erasing the past and transforming the urban space. After this demolition, Kültürpark was constructed on the fire debris and accepted as the construction of modern Izmir of newly established Turkish Republic. This change has created new spatial relationships and experiences. One of them is Izmir Atatürk High School-Kültürpark relationship which was constantly produced with the help of user practices, created a collective memory about Kültürpark. The physical neighborhood of the park and high school in the city has created a compulsory interaction between high school students and Kültürpark. Daily life in the park was more easily experienced by students than random teenages. Thus, this defined user group has created their own memory of Kültürpark over the years. In the study, “What is the memory of Kültürpark in Izmir Atatürk High School students?" is considered as the main problem. It is aimed to explore different historical, social, and spatial layers of Kültürpark. Reminding the importance of the park once again is the other objective of the study. A survey was conducted among 302 graduates between 1951 and 2020 to determine the "different Kültürparks" in the memories of Izmir Atatürk High School students. A mixed set of questions was prepared, and a qualitative analysis was carried out. As a result, the various Kültürpark experiences were determined by the help of these dynamic user profiles. Spatial and social changes in both city and country have been discussed in the context of collective memory.</p> Su Kardelen Erdoğan, Hikmet Eldek Güner Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/365 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300 A multi-layered reading on the salon-vitrin coupling: Domestic staging in modern apartment in Turkey https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/383 <p>This paper focuses on the modern living room, which is appropriated as a <em>salon </em>by the socio-economic middle class in Turkey, and where <em>vitrin</em> is a furniture set in which spectacular objects are staged. Revealing hybridity in the ways the imposed westernization is appropriated and expressed by the inhabitants, the<em> salon </em>becomes a contested space for the multi-generational dwellers in their role of power. Instead of accommodating the everyday practices of the family, the <em>salon</em> is reserved for guests only, like a “museum”. Its contextual extension, <em>vitrin</em>, as an interface nested within its interior wall with multiple layers, offers staged communications between the household and the outside world. This study offers a multi-layered reading to trace the hybridity of expressions created by the inhabitants through this <em>salon-vitrin</em> coupling. It elaborates on domestic staging practices by focusing on the relationship between subjects of dwellers and guests, their representations constructed with the agency of objects, and their immersed environments of windows, screens, and stages. As different generations live in the same house, a specific form of dwelling has emerged. The sociocultural, material, and technological layers of staging practices form a suitable physical environment for the emergence and sustenance of the domestic staging practice. This study concludes that these practices contribute to capturing the transformation of everyday domestic life, in which <em>vitrin</em> has evolved as an inter-facade that produces new meanings from the interior to the exterior, exceeding its original intentions.</p> Duygu Tüntaş, Bilge Beril Kapusuz-Balcı Copyright (c) 2023 A|Z ITU JOURNAL OF THE FACULTY OF ARCHITECTURE https://www.az.itu.edu.tr/index.php/jfa/article/view/383 Tue, 28 Nov 2023 00:00:00 +0300